明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年03月22日 04:44:11
British and Chinese motor industry co-operation — best known for Shanghai Auto’s ownership of the Longbridge plant in Birmingham — will advance this week to include projects from red London buses to Aston Martin sports cars, but with a common th: electric power.英中两国汽车业的合作以上海汽车(Shanghai Auto)对伯明翰长桥(Longbridge)汽车厂的收购最为知名。而在本周,这一合作将取得很大进展,这其中包括了从红色伦敦公交车到阿斯顿氠丁(Aston Martin)运动型轿车在内的多个项目,它们的共同点在于:都和电动力有关。Chinese car and battery maker BYD will show off the world’s first electric double-decker bus on Wednesday after signing a 10-year joint venture with Scottish manufacturer Alexander Dennis (ADL) to produce a zero-emissions fleet for the UK.周三,中国汽车和电池制造商比亚迪(BYD)将展示全球第一款电动双层巴士。此前,该公司与苏格兰制造商亚历山大·丹尼斯有限公司(ADL)签署了一份为期十年的合资协议,为英国打造零排放的公交车队。The two companies will together build 2,000, 12-metre single-decker electric buses in Falkirk for the British market over 10 years, in a deal generating 660m in total revenues.两家企业将在10年时间里在福尔柯克为英国市场制造2000辆12米长的单层电动公交车,协议总计会创造6.6亿英镑的营收。But BYD, which is backed by Warren Buffett, and ADL are in advanced talks to extend the deal to include double deckers. “When this happens there is potential to triple the scale of the current deal to almost 2bn,” the companies said.不过,曾获沃伦巴菲特(Warren Buffett)投资的比亚迪正在和ADL开展深入磋商,准备将该协议拓展至包括双层巴士在内。两家企业表示:“此事一旦达成,现有交易的规模可能会扩大两倍,达到近20亿英镑。”The bus will be unveiled outside Lancaster House on Wednesday alongside the new hybrid electric TX5 taxi from the Chinese-owned London Taxi Company and the Aston Martin DB10 sports car from the forthcoming James Bond film, Spectre.该款巴士将于周三在兰卡斯特宫(Lancaster House)外亮相。和该车一道亮相的,还有来自伦敦出租车公司(London Taxi Company)的新型混合电动TX5出租车,以及阿斯顿氠丁DB10运动型轿车。目前,伦敦出租车公司已由中国人全资持股。而阿斯顿氠丁DB10运动型轿车则会出现在即将上映的007电影《幽灵党》(Spectre)中。Aston Marton is expected to announce an agreement on fresh investment from China Equity, a buyout group, which will help the British carmaker produce an all-electric version of its Rapide luxury saloon.阿斯顿氠丁预计会公布一份有关收购集团信中利(China Equity)的新一轮投资的协议,这笔资金将帮助这家英国汽车制造商生产一款纯电动的Rapide豪华轿车。A battery-powered concept version of the car will be in the garden at Lancaster House on Wednesday, and Aston Martin will seek to bring the UK-made variant to market within two years.周三,兰卡斯特宫的花园里将展出该款车型的电池动力概念车,阿斯顿氠丁将寻求在两年内将这种英国制造的变种车型推向市场。The deals are part of a raft of Sino-British business being conducted under the auspices of a state visit by Chinese President Xi Jinping as the UK seeks to woo investment from the world’s second-largest economy.比亚迪的竞争对手、旗下拥有瑞士品牌沃尔沃(Volvo)的中国制造商吉利(Geely),也将首次展出TX5混合动力出租车。这款6个座位的出租车拥有一系列新特性,其中包括WiFi热点、玻璃全景天窗及1958年来首次出现的后铰链车门。China, which is grappling with well-documented air quality and congestion problems in its cities, is closing the gap on emissions standards with western peers and has provided incentives to encourage the production and sale of electric vehicles, such as reducing the purchase price and supporting infrastructure.这款以电池做动力的出租车拥有新的轻型铝制结构,这比目前的铁制底盘前进了一步。此外,该车还持一款汽油“増程器”。 /201510/405241Russia has blocked a Facebook page calling for a protest in support of opposition leader Alexei Navalny, as the Kremlin tightens its control of the internet and social media.The move capped a week of drama in Russia, where a collapse in the value of the rouble triggered widesp alarm and rattled the population’s confidence in President Vladimir Putin.The Facebook page was set up after prosecutors on Friday asked for a 10-year jail sentence for Mr Navalny on embezzlement charges that critics say are politically motivated.As of Sunday afternoon, 12,000 people had said they would attend the protest, which was called for January 15, the date of the verdict in Mr Navalny’s case. A separate Facebook page, set up after the first one was blocked, had attracted 15,700 promises of attendance.Mr Navalny, an anti-corruption blogger sharply critical of Mr Putin, was a central figure in the 2011-12 protests that shook Moscow after the most recent presidential elections. Last year he ran unsuccessfully for Moscow mayor, but since February has been living under house arrest amid a series of investigations into his affairs.Vadim Ampelonsky, a spokesman for communications regulator Roskomnadzor, told Interfax on Saturday that the prosecutor-general had requested that access be blocked “to internet pages on Facebook which contain calls to unauthorised mass events”.The move comes amid a growing crackdown on the Russian opposition and paranoia in the Kremlin about the possibility of a popular revolution in the mould of Ukraine’s Maidan square or the Arab Spring.At his annual press conference on Thursday, Mr Putin said “the border line between the opposition and the fifth column is very thin”, using a Stalin-era term to describe traitors within Russia that Mr Putin has repopularised.翻译仅供参考俄罗斯加大了对互联网和社交媒体的控制力度,封禁了一个呼吁开展抗议活动、持反对派领导人阿列克谢#8226;纳瓦尔尼(Alexei Navalny)的Facebook网页。周五,俄罗斯检方以贪污罪提请判处纳瓦尔尼10年监禁,这个Facebook页面是在那之后设立的。批评者认为,检方这一指控带有政治目的。有人呼吁在纳瓦尔尼案判决当日,即2015年1月15日举行这一抗议活动。截至周日下午,已有1.2万人表示会参加该抗议活动。此外,在第一个Facebook网页被封之后,有人在Facebook上另外设立了一个网页。后者吸引了1.57万人表态,承诺将参与该抗议活动。纳瓦尔尼是一名对俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)持尖锐批评态度的反腐败主。他是2011年到2012年期间俄罗斯多起抗议活动的核心人物。这些抗议活动发生在俄罗斯最近一次总统选举之后,它们令俄罗斯政府十分不安。去年,他还曾竞选莫斯科市长,但并未成功。不过,自今年2月以来,他因多起事件遭到一系列调查,并一直处于软禁之中。周六,俄罗斯通信监管部门Roskomnadzor发言人瓦季姆#8226;安佩龙斯基(Vadim Ampelonsky)告诉俄罗斯国际文传电讯社(Interfax),俄罗斯总检察长要求“对含有呼吁开展未经批准的大规模事件的网页予以封禁”。这一举措的推出,正值俄罗斯加大对反对派打击力度之际。同时,俄罗斯政府还十分偏执地认为,俄罗斯可能发生乌克兰独立广场(Maidan square)模式或阿拉伯之春(Arab Spring)模式的人民革命。今年,俄罗斯加大了对互联网的管控。今年2月,俄罗斯生效了多项法律,令总检察长可以在无需法院命令的情况下,下令封禁网站或社交媒体账户。 /201412/350213

  SAN FRANCISCO — For Apple, the hard part — making a smartwatch — is nearly over.旧金山——对苹果(Apple)来说,难的那部分已经接近尾声——也就是做出一款智能手表。Soon it will be time for the harder part: selling the long-anticipated Apple Watch to consumers who, so far, are not very excited about the idea of wearing computers on their bodies.很快它要面对更难的一部分:把外界期盼已久的Apple Watch卖给消费者,而到目前为止,人们并不是很热衷于在身上穿戴一台电脑。The first batch of smartwatches from companies like Samsung Electronics, Motorola and LG did not sell well, nor were they particularly well reviewed. And wearable devices like the Google Glass eyewear that got mainstream attention — if not sales — were greeted with considerable skepticism.三星电子(Samsung Electronics)、托罗拉(Motorola)和LG等公司率先推出的第一批智能手表销量不佳,得到的评价也一般。像谷歌眼镜(Google Glass)这样的可穿戴设备得到了广泛关注——销量可能就是另一回事了——但也受到相当多的质疑。But Apple has been in this situation before. Most consumers didn’t care about computer tablets before Apple released the iPad, nor did they generally think about buying smartphones before the release of the iPhone. In both cases, the company overcame initial skepticism.这不是苹果第一次面对这样的局面。在他们推出iPad前,大多数消费者对平板电脑没什么兴趣,推出iPhone前,考虑买智能手机的人也不多。这两个例子里,公司都克了最初的质疑。The Apple Watch, which Apple introduced last September and is expected to be in stores in April, is a miniature computer worn around the wrist, with a touch screen and a crown for navigating the device. There are three different models sold at different prices and the bands are interchangeable.苹果在去年9月推出的Apple Watch,预计将在4月上架销售,它是一个戴在手腕上的微型电脑,配有一块触摸屏和一个用于设备界面导航的表冠。一共有价格不一的三种型号,表带可以更换。Apple has marketed it as a device that can appeal to a range of customers like fitness buffs and luxury watch collectors. But it has limited its functions, making it more like a watch, more easily relatable than a tech doodad that happens to look like a watch, said Ben Bajarin, a consumer technology analyst for Creative Strategies.苹果对这种设备的市场定位很广,从健身狂人到豪华腕表藏家都是目标受众。但是创意策略公司(Creative Strategies)消费科技分析师本·巴加林(Ben Bajarin)说,苹果对其功能进行了限制,好让它更像一块手表,让人更容易接近,而不只是一个凑巧长得像表的高科技玩物。“This is a brand-new category. Most people have no frame of reference with a smartwatch,” said Mr. Bajarin.“这是一个全新的产品门类。面对一块智能手表,多数人是没有标准可参照的,”巴加林说。In late February, Apple sent out invitations to the media for an event to remind people about the best features of the watch and share some new details about the product, according to two people with knowledge of the event. Timothy D. Cook, Apple’s chief executive, is expected to be the host.2月底,苹果向媒体发出了一份活动邀请函,据两个了解该活动内情的人说,它的目的是重温这款手表的重要特性,并分享更多的细节。预计活动将由苹果首席执行官蒂莫西·D·库克(Timothy D. Cook)主持。Apple is expected to say more about price. The starting price for a basic Apple Watch is 0. Apple has not yet said how much people will have to pay for higher-end models, like the Apple Watch Edition, which is made of 18-karat gold, though watch enthusiasts estimate that it will cost upward of ,000.苹果可能会透露更多定价方面的信息。Apple Watch基础款的价格是350美元(约合2200元人民币)。苹果尚未宣布高端型号的定价,比如使用了18K黄金的Apple Watch Edition,不过手表爱好者估计它的售价应该接近1万美元。The watch requires a connection to an iPhone to fully operate.手表需要和一台iPhone连接才能使用所有功能。Inside Apple, members of the team that worked on the watch product, code-named Gizmo, say it was a difficult engineering challenge. Three employees briefed on the project agreed to speak on the condition of anonymity.手表产品在苹果内部的项目代号为Gizmo,其开发团队成员说,它在工程上带来了严峻挑战。三名了解该项目的苹果雇员要求匿名接受采访。In an effort to maintain secrecy, engineers testing the watch outside the office even created fake casing that made the Apple device resemble a Samsung watch, one person said.其中一人说,为了保密,在办公室以外的地方测试手表的工程师甚至制作了假表壳,好让这个苹果设备看上去像一块三星手表。The people who created the watch have been described by Apple employees as an “all-star team.” Apple’s top designers and engineers who worked on its iPhone, iPad and Macs are all part of it, several Apple employees said. Top executives include Jony Ive, Apple’s head of design; Jeff Williams, the head of operations; and Kevin Lynch, a former Adobe executive, who leads the watch’s software development.苹果雇员称负责手表开发的是一个“全明星团队”。多位苹果雇员表示,团队中有参与过iPhone、iPad和Mac开发的苹果顶尖设计师和工程师。其高管包括苹果设计主管乔尼·艾夫(Jony Ive);运营主管杰夫·威廉姆斯(Jeff Williams);前奥多比公司(Adobe)高管、负责手表软件开发的凯文·林奇(Kevin Lynch)。Employees said it was challenging to cram powerful chips and sensors onto the watch’s circuit board, which is as tiny as a postage stamp.苹果雇员说,手表的电路板只有一张邮票那么大,要把强大的芯片和传感器塞进去是很困难的。Nearly two years ago, the company experimented with advanced health monitoring sensors that tracked blood pressure and stress, among other variables. Many of those experiments were abandoned more than 18 months ago after the sensors proved unreliable and cumbersome, these people said.将近两年前,公司曾尝试使用高级健康监测传感器,用于跟踪血压和精神压力等等因素。这些雇员说,几个月后一些传感器经明还不够可靠,而且很笨重,许多实验因此被放弃了。Apple long ago decided that for the first version of the product, it would include a heart rate sensor and a sensor for tracking movement, to market the device as a fitness-tracking companion to the iPhone. It also has a chip that helps it make wireless payments.苹果早已决定在手表的首个版本中要使用心率传感器和运动跟踪传感器,这样就可以将它作为配合iPhone的健康跟踪工具来推广。表内还有一个可以无线付的芯片。Battery life was also a concern on a device so small, and engineers mulled over how the watch’s power should be replenished. The company in the past experimented with multiple methods to recharge the watch, including solar charging. Eventually it settled with induction, a method in which an electrical current creates a magnetic field, which creates voltage that powers the watch.对于如此小巧的设备,电池寿命也是个问题,工程师们对手表的充电方式有过很多考虑。苹果实验了多种充电方式,包括太阳能充电。最终还是决定用电磁感应,用电流产生一个磁场,磁场进而产生电压用于充电。Apple has said the watch battery is estimated to last a full day, requiring a user to charge it at night, similar to a smartphone. The company also developed a yet-to-be-announced feature called Power Reserve, a mode that will run the watch on low energy but display only the time, according to one employee.苹果称手表的电池大概能维持一整天,用户需要每天晚上充电,和智能手机类似。据一位雇员称,公司还开发了一种尚未公布的“蓄能”(Power Reserve)特性,让手表可以在低电量情况下运转,但只显示时间。Apple will release the watch a bit later than it had hoped because of technology challenges. It probably didn’t help that several important employees jumped ship. Nest Labs, the smart appliance maker that was acquired by Google last year, poached a few engineers who were the very best on the watch team, according to two people. Among them was Bryan James, Apple’s former director of iPod software, who became a vice president for engineering at Nest in early 2014, these people said.由于在技术上遇到困难,手表的发布会比苹果预想的晚一些。而多名重要雇员的离职更是雪上加霜。有两人透露,去年被谷歌(Google)收购的智能家电制造商Nest Labs挖走了手表团队中的几名最优秀成员。其中包括苹果前iPad软件总监布莱恩·詹姆斯(Bryan James),两人说他在2014年初成为Nest的工程副总裁。Still, when Apple releases its watch in April, it will enter a market aly flooded with smartwatches running Android Wear, a version of Google’s Android software system tailored for wearable computers.此外,等到苹果在4月推出手表时,市场已经挤满了各种运行Android Wear的智能手表,后者是谷歌Android软件系统的一个定制版,专用于可穿戴电脑。The results so far for Android smartwatches have been disappointing. About 720,000 smartwatches with Android Wear were shipped in 2014, according to Canalys, the research firm.Android智能手表的销售数据,目前来看是令人失望的。据研究机构卡纳利斯公司(Canalys)的数据,2014年Android Wear智能手表出货量为72万块。Daniel Matte, an analyst for Canalys, said based on those numbers, it would be premature to call smartwatches a flop. He also predicts Apple’s watch will become the top-selling smartwatch next year.卡纳利斯分析师丹尼尔·迈特(Daniel Matte)说,从这样的数据来看,说智能手表已经失败过于草率。此外他还预测苹果的手表在明年将成为最热卖的智能手表。But it is unlikely to be a game-changer for Apple, at least anytime soon. Toni Sacconaghi, a financial analyst for Sanford C. Bernstein research, thinks the watch will make only a modest contribution to Apple’s bottom line this year. He predicts that Apple will ship 7.5 million watches in the second half of Apple’s fiscal year.但它不太可能成为苹果的一个划时代产品,至少短时间内不会。桑福德·伯恩斯坦公司(Sanford C. Bernstein)金融分析师托尼·萨克纳吉(Toni Sacconaghi)认为,手表在今年苹果的业绩中将只占很小一部分。他预测苹果在本财年下半年的手表出货量为750万块。That is peanuts compared with the tens of millions of iPhones that fly off the shelves every quarter.这跟季度销量在千万级的iPhone比起来只是零头。Companies that make watch apps will probably play an important role in defining the purpose of the Apple Watch, similar to the app developers for the iPhone and the iPad.制作手表应用的公司,可能会是决定Apple Watch用途的一股重要力量,和应用开发者在iPhone、iPad的发展中发挥的作用类似。Tero Kuittinen, a director for Frank N. Magid Associates who does consulting for app developers, said he had talked to about 20 app developers about the Apple Watch. Most of them, he said, were “cautiously optimistic.” But they worry apps for watches won’t be as lucrative as apps for phones because the tiny screen can limit features or — even worse — ads.为应用开发商提供咨询务的弗兰克·N·马吉德公司(Frank N. Magid Associates)董事泰罗·库伊蒂宁(Tero Kuittinen)说,他已经和大约20个应用开发商谈过Apple Watch。他说多数人都抱着“谨慎乐观”的心态。但他们担心手表应用不会像手机应用那么赚钱,因为小屏幕会限制功能,更糟的是还会限制广告。David Barnard, an independent app developer, said he was expanding one of his iPhone apps to work with the Apple Watch. The app, called Launch Center Pro, can be customized to initiate different actions like setting the temperature of an Internet-connected thermostat or unlocking a door.独立应用开发者戴维·巴纳德(David Barnard)说,他正在把他的一个iPhone应用扩展到Apple Watch上。该应用叫做Launch Center Pro,可以定制各种操作,比如设定联网温控器的温度,或打开门锁。He said he was both “bullish” on the long-term potential of the smartwatch and “skeptical” about what exactly people would do with it.他说他对智能手表的未来前景是“看涨的”,但对人们究竟用它来做什么心存“疑惑”。“I really wonder exactly how I’m going to use it and how often I’m going to use it,” Mr. Barnard said.“我真的不知道我会怎么去用它,使用的频率会有多高,”巴纳德说。 /201503/362177

  The phone maker, which partnered with game company Valve for its virtual reality headset, delays the device to next year. It was supposed to launch in time for the holidays.手机厂商HTC宣布,公司与厂商Valve合作开发的虚拟现实头盔将推迟至明年发布,Vive头盔原定于在年底各大假期前发布。If you had an HTC Vive on your Christmas list, it looks like even Santa won#39;t be able to get it to you in time.如果HTC Vive原本在你的圣诞购买清单上的话,现在看来就算圣诞老人也不能让你如愿了。Phone maker HTC said Tuesday it is delaying its virtual reality goggles until April 2016, more than four months later than the original plan to offer the device for sale in limited quantities this year.手机厂商HTC周二宣布,将该款虚拟现实头盔将被推迟至2016年4月发布,比原定于今年提供限量销售的计划推迟了4个月。;We remain committed to delivering the HTC Vive to a broader group of content creators and partners, and remain focused on delivering the very best experience possible for a consumer release,; the company wrote on its website, citing speculation about the Vive#39;s planned release this month.“我们仍会向更大范围的内容创造者和合作伙伴提供HTC Vive,并且专注于在面向消费者发布该产品时尽可能提供最佳的用户体验。”公司在其官网上如是写道,并宣布了原定于本月发布的Vive头盔的最终发布时间。The company announced the Vive in March as part of a partnership with Valve, which is known for its Half-Life games and Steam online store.公司在今年3月宣布将与厂商Valve 合作开发虚拟现实Vive头盔,Valve(威乐软件)因其半条命等系列游戏和Steam在线务名声大噪。HTC#39;s delay represents just the latest bump in virtual reality#39;s long and winding road from research projects to store shelves. So far, only two headsets, Google#39;s Cardboard and Samsung#39;s Gear VR, are being offered to consumers. Others won#39;t be available until next year.HTC公司该产品的推迟发布说明虚拟现实技术从研究项目走向实体店的道路确实是漫长而曲折的。到目前为止,只有谷歌的Cardboard和三星的Gear VR这两款已面向消费者的虚拟现实产品,其他产品都需等到明年才有可能上市。We still don#39;t know the price or detailed launch dates for products like the Oculus Rift, Sony PlayStation VR or HTC Vive, all of which are focused on high-end VR games and s.目前这些虚拟现实产品如Oculus Rift, Sony PlayStation VR 或 HTC Vive的售价和具体发布时间还尚不明确,这些产品都将专注于高端虚拟现实游戏和视频领域。The lack of detail hasn#39;t stopped fans from eagerly hyping these devices, nor has it stopped a flood of developers from creating all sorts of content. Major streaming companies Hulu and Netflix work with the devices, while game makers like Microsoft, Harmonix and Sony are preparing to offer games.虽然还不清楚这些细节,但这并不能阻止粉丝们为这些设备的热切造势,大批开发商也迫切为这些产品创作各种内容。主要的两大流媒体公司Hulu 和 Netflix均打算与这些产品合作,而微软, Harmonix 和索尼都分别表示为这些产品提供游戏。Despite all this enthusiasm, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg -- who pushed Facebook to buy Oculus last year -- has begun lowering expectations for how quick the uptake will be for these devices. ;This is going to grow slowly,; he warned in September. ;If you think about the arrival of computers or smartphones, the first units shipped did not ship tens of millions in their first year. But they proved an idea and made it real.;尽管有这般热情,去年刚成功收购Oculus的脸书首席执行官马克扎克伯格却开始下调预期,这些新设备的最初销量可能都不会太高。他在9月份就警示,“这些新设备的进展会比较慢,想想当初计算机和智能手机问世时的情景,在第一年这些设备的销量都不会太高,但它们明了某想法是可以变成现实的。”For now, HTC said it plans to offer 7,000 more prototypes of its device to developers ahead of next year#39;s launch.目前,HTC表示公司打算在明年正式发布Vive头盔之前先向开发商提供7000多套设备样品。 /201512/415327。





  Where do dogs come from?是从哪里来的?Gray wolves are their ancestors. Scientists are pretty consistent about that. And researchers have suggested that dogs’ origins can be traced to Europe, the Near East, Siberia and South China.灰狼是的祖先。在这件事上,科学家们的意见相当一致。研究人员认为,的起源可以追溯到欧洲、近东、西伯利亚和中国南方。Central Asia is the newest and best candidate, according to a large study of dogs from around the world.对世界各地犬只进行的一项大型研究最新显示,最有可能的起源地是中亚。Laura M. Shannon and Adam R. Boyko at Cornell University, and an international group of other scientists, studied not only purebred dogs, but also street or village dogs — the free-ranging scavengers that make up about 75 percent of the planet’s one billion dogs.康奈尔大学(Cornell University)的劳拉·M·莎伦(Laura M. Shannon)和亚当·R·伊科(Adam R. Boyko)与其他科学家一起,组成了一个国际研究小组。该小组不只调查纯种犬,也包括街上或乡村里的——全球共有十亿只,其中大约75%是自由来去的流浪。Dr. Shannon analyzed three different kinds of DNA, Dr. Boyko said, the first time this has been done for such a large and diverse group of dogs, more than 4,500 dogs of 161 breeds and 549 village dogs from 38 countries. That allowed the researchers to determine which geographic groups of modern dogs were closest to ancestral populations genetically. And that led them to Central Asia as the place of origin for dogs in much the same way that genetic studies have located the origin of modern humans in East Africa.莎伦士分析了三种不同类型的DNA,伊科士说,这是第一次对如此众多、如此多样化的犬只进行研究,包括了161个品种的逾4500只,以及来自38个国家的549只乡村。因此研究人员能够分析出哪些现代犬只的地理群落在基因上最接近其祖先群体。基因研究确定了现代人类起源于东非,而他们也采用大致一样的方式,确定了犬类的起源地是中亚。The analysis, Dr. Boyko said, pointed to Central Asia, including Mongolia and Nepal, as the place where “all the dogs alive today” come from. The data did not allow precise dating of the origin, he said, but showed it occurred at least 15,000 years ago. They reported their findings Monday in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.伊科士说,分析显示,包括蒙古和尼泊尔在内的中亚地区是“目前所有尚存的犬种”的来源地。他说这些数据不足以对起源进行精确测年,但从中可以看到是在至少1.5万年前。本周一,他们的报告发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)上。Greger Larson of Oxford University, who is leading a large international effort to analyze ancient DNA from fossilized bones, said he was impressed by the scope of the study. “It’s really great to see not just the sheer number of street dogs, but also the geographic bth and the number of remote locations where the dogs were sampled,” he said in an email. He also praised the sampling of different kinds of DNA and the analytic methods.牛津大学的格雷格·拉尔森(Greger Larson)是一个大型国际项目的领导者,主持对骨化石中古代DNA的分析工作。拉尔森说这项犬只研究的规模给他留下了深刻的印象。“该研究涵盖的流浪数目,以及采样犬只所涉及的地域广度和边远地区的数量,让人觉得很了不起,”他在一封电邮中说。他还称赞了对不同种类DNA进行采样的做法以及分析方法。But in the world of dog studies, very little is definitive. The most recent common ancestor of today’s dogs lived in Central Asia, Dr. Boyko said, although he cannot rule out the possibility that some dogs could have been domesticated elsewhere and died out. Or dogs domesticated elsewhere could have gone to Central Asia from somewhere else and then diversified into all the canines alive today, he said.但在犬类研究领域,很少有研究是确定的。伊科士表示,现存犬种的最近共祖生活在中亚地区,但他无法排除一些犬只可能在其他地方受到驯化并灭绝的可能性。他表示,或者在其他地方经过驯化的犬只从别的地方来到中亚,然后经过多样化发展,演化成现存的所有犬种。Dr. Larson, who was not involved with the study, said he thought the Central Asia finding required further testing. He said he suspected that the origins of modern dogs were “extremely messy” and that no amount of sampling of living populations will be definitive. He said a combination of studies of modern and ancient DNA is necessary.没有参与这项研究的拉尔森表示,他认为起源于中亚的结果需要进一步的检验。他认为现代犬只的起源“非常混乱”,即使对再多的现存犬只取样也无法确定。他表示,需要把对现代及古代DNA的研究结合起来。Dr. Boyko said the new research for the first time analyzed three sources of DNA from both purebred and village dogs worldwide. The team analyzed DNA from all the chromosomes in the cell nucleus, from the Y chromosome specifically, found only in males, and from mitochondria, cellular energy machines outside the nucleus that are inherited from the mother.伊科士表示,新研究首次分析了世界各地的纯种和乡村的三种DNA。该团队分析了细胞核的所有染色体、只有公犬携带的Y染色体及线粒体的DNA,线粒体是位于遗传自母体的细胞核外的细胞能量制造结构。Dr. Boyko traveled to a number of the locations where blood was drawn from village dogs. He said, “The great thing about working with dogs is that if you show up with food you don’t usually have trouble recruiting subjects. Usually.”伊科士走访了很多乡村的采血点。他表示,“与一起工作最棒的一点就是,如果你拿着食物,征召作为实验对象通常不会遇到困难。通常是这样。”He added: “We showed up in Puerto Rico at a fishing village and the dogs turned up their noses at roast beef sandwiches. They were used to eating fish entrails.”他还表示,“我们去了波多黎各的一个渔村,那里的过来嗅烤牛肉三明治。它们通常吃鱼内脏。” /201510/404917。

  Four months ago Microsoft scored a cyber coup. Its digital sleuths identified a “botnet”, or fake server, that had installed malware on computers worldwide, and then it worked with the Federal Bureau of Investigation and others to shut it down. To their alarm they discovered that no fewer than 12m — yes 12m — PCs were infected, according to Tom Burt, the company’s deputy general counsel. 4个月前,微软(Microsoft)在网络世界取得了一次成功。该公司的数字化侦察器发现了一个在世界各地许多计算机中安插了恶意软件的“僵尸网络”(也就是假务器),随后与美国联邦调查局(FBI)及其他方面合作关闭了该网络。微软副总法律顾问汤姆#8226;伯特(Tom Burt)称,让他们担心的是,他们发现有至少1200万台——没错,就是1200万——个人电脑已被感染。 If you are tempted to shout “hooray”, that is understandable. After all, botnets pose a particularly pernicious threat since they are fiendishly hard to find. And cyber attacks in general are increasing explosively, costing global businesses 0bn a year, according to data from Microsoft. 如果你不禁大声叫好,是可以理解的。毕竟,因为“僵尸网络”极其难以被发现,它们构成了极其可怕的威胁。微软数据还显示,总体来看,网络攻击数量呈爆炸式增长,每年对全球企业造成4000亿美元的损失。 There is a catch, though. Microsoft and the FBI now hope to bring the cyber hackers who created that botnet to court. But since this botnet was not entirely run from US soil — and those 12m infected computers sit everywhere around the world, from China and India to Chile and the US — the saga could be about to plunge into a legal grey zone. 然而,有一个难题。微软和FBI现在希望将创建这个“僵尸网络”的网络黑客诉诸公堂。但是,由于这个“僵尸网络”并不完全在美国境内运行,同时那1200万台被病毒感染的电脑分散在从中国、印度到智利和美国的世界各地,这件奇功接下来可能会陷入法律灰色地带。 “Think of a situation where you have a botnet in Singapore run by hackers in Bulgaria who cause damage to somebody in America,” Mr Burt told a Financial Times conference in Washington this week. “Who has jurisdiction? What laws are used?” Nobody knows. In cyber space, as in the global financial system a decade ago, a plethora of criminal activity is in danger of falling between the cracks because national rules are ill suited to a fast-moving digital world. “试想这样一个情境——保加利亚的黑客在新加坡运营的‘僵尸网络’对美国某个人造成了损害,”伯特不久前在英国《金融时报》于华盛顿举办的一场会议上称,“谁拥有司法管辖权?适用哪国法律?”没人知道。在网络空间,就像10年前的全球金融体系一样,非常多的犯罪活动都可能会逃脱制裁,因为各国法律没跟上快速发展的数字化世界。 Investors and politicians around the world should take note — and worry. Deeply. In the past couple of years, western governments and businesses have made considerable strides in building defences against cyber crime. This week in Washington, for example, the Department of Homeland Security is launching an “automated information-sharing” program for utility companies. The aim is to ensure that, “when adversaries try something” against one US utility company, everyone else is alerted, according to Suzanne Spaulding, an undersecretary at the department. 世界各地的投资者和政界人士应该留意,并为此感到担忧——严重担忧。过去几年,西方政府和企业在构建网络犯罪防御网方面取得了长足的进展。例如,不久前在华盛顿,美国国土安全部(DHS)为公用事业企业启动了一项“信息自动分享”计划。DHS副部长苏珊娜#8226;斯波尔丁(Suzanne Spaulding)称,该计划的目的是确保当有人对一家美国公用事业企业图谋不轨时,每个人都会收到警报。 In truth, such information-sharing is still imperfect. John Carlin, assistant attorney-general for national security, admits “the vast majority of companies do not report small intrusions” to each other. But the situation is better than four years ago, when suspicion between business and the security establishment reached such depths that the US Chamber of Commerce dragged its feet about setting up mandatory information-sharing programs. And the fact that nobody has yet conducted a successful hack on a US utility, say, is one reason for comfort. 事实上,这类信息分享计划仍不完善。美国司法部负责国家安全事务的副部长约翰#8226;卡林(John Carlin)承认,“绝大多数企业并不相互通报自己受到的小规模入侵”。但是如今的情况要好于4年前,当时企业和安全机构相互抱有极深的戒心,以至于美国商会(US Chamber of Commerce)在建立强制信息分享计划时也拖拖拉拉。目前还没有任何针对比如一家美国公用事业企业的黑客攻击得手过,这是值得欣慰的地方。 But, as business and government strengthen their defences, the big missing piece of this campaign is punishment. As any parent or regulator knows, it is hard to deter wrongdoing without a system for imposing discipline. And, right now, remarkably few cyber criminals have been brought to trial relative to the scale of the current 0bn heist. 但是,随着企业和政府加强防御,这一行动一大块缺失的部分也凸显了出来,那就是:惩罚。正如任何父母或监管机构都知道的那样,没有一个强制施加管教的机制,就很难阻止不当行为。相比现在每年4000亿美元的损失规模,目前被告上法庭的网络罪犯数量少之又少。 That partly reflects the difficulty of identifying and apprehending perpetrators, particularly in places such as Russia and China. The other big problem is the one faced by Microsoft: the legal framework across borders is a mess. 这部分反映出确认犯罪者身份和施加逮捕的难度,特别是在俄罗斯和中国等地区。另外一个大麻烦是微软面对的问题:跨国法律框架一片混乱。 In a rational world, this would suggest a multilateral body, such as the UN, urgently needs to create some common laws or at least promote more mutual recognition. In the real world, sensible collaboration is hard to organise now; indeed, events such as the Edward Snowden affair — where revelations by a former US National Security Agency contractor about the extent of American internet surveillance fuelled transatlantic rows over privacy — are making this debate even harder. “Walls are going up,” says Mr Burt. 在理性的世界中,这意味着一家多边机构(比如联合国)迫切需要制定一些通用法律,或者推动各国加强法律互认。而在现实世界里,理性的合作眼下很难组织起来;事实上,爱德华#8226;斯诺登(Edward Snowden)等事件正使得相关讨论更加难以进行。斯诺登是前美国国家安全局(NSA)合同工,他关于美国互联网监视强度的爆料,引发欧美关于隐私问题的争执。“高墙正在竖起,”伯特称。 So in the interim, US officials are using whatever homegrown tools they have. Mr Carlin, for example, says Washington security officials recently managed to extradite from Malaysia a suspected hacker who had created a cyber attack against a US retailer that spearheaded a bigger Islamist plot. 因此,在现阶段,美国官员正在利用一切本土手段。例如,卡林称,华盛顿方面的安全官员最近成功从马来西亚引渡了一名黑客嫌疑犯,此人对美国一家零售商发动了一场网络攻击,为一个更大的伊斯兰主义阴谋做先期准备。 But strong-arm US legal action is not an effective long-term solution; not least because such unilateral measures risk sparking a backlash. And many western companies are in effect stuck: they can build defences against cyber crime but cannot effectively retaliate. 但是,美国强硬的法律行动从长期来看并非有效的解决方案;尤其是因为此类单边措施可能会引发反作用。很多西方企业实际上都被困住:它们可以构建针对网络犯罪的防御网,但是无法有效反击。 So when people describe cyber space as the new Wild West, they are only half correct. This is a place where baddies have an endless supply of cheap guns but ordinary citizens have only barricades. This looks unlikely to change soon — unless and until companies such as Microsoft find a way to put those botnet creators behind bars. That would be an even more remarkable coup. 所以,当人们把网络空间形容为新的“狂野西部”(Wild West)时,他们只说对了一半。网络空间是这样一个地方:坏人有源源不断的廉价供应,而普通公民只有防御工事。这种状况似乎不太可能很快改变——除非微软等企业找到将“僵尸网络”的创建者绳之以法的办法。那将是一次更引人瞩目的成功。 /201603/432755


  HOORN, The Netherlands — On a wintry night in January 2005, an art thief slipped into the Westfries Museum here, the authorities believe, and hid beneath drapery on a 17th-century coffin as the doors were locked for the night.荷兰霍伦——2005年一月的一个寒夜,一个艺术品窃贼溜进西弗兰里物馆(Westfries Museum),官方认为,夜间闭馆时,他就躲在一口17世纪棺材的盖毯之下。After disabling the alarm system, the theory goes, the thief allowed at least one collaborator into the small museum, which houses works from the Dutch Golden Age. When the Westfries opened the next morning, 24 paintings worth a total of about 1.3 million euros, about .44 million, along with 70 pieces of antique silver, were gone, leaving only frames hanging on the gallery walls.警方推断,这个窃贼弄坏了警报系统,让至少一个同伙溜进了这座储存着荷兰黄金时代艺术品的小物馆。西弗兰里物馆翌日开门之时,发现有价值130万欧元(约合144万美元)的24幅油画失窃,此外还有70件古董银器也不见踪影,画廊里只剩下空荡荡的画框。For a decade, the whereabouts of the stolen works remained a mystery, and the assumption was that they had disappeared into the murky world of international art theft.十年来,这些失窃艺术品都下落不明,人们认为,它们已经进入国际盗窃艺术品市场的污浊世界。Then, this summer, representatives of an ultranationalist militia in Ukraine contacted the Dutch Embassy in Kiev, saying the group had discovered the art in a villa near Donetsk that had belonged to the government of the deposed president Viktor F. Yanukovych and was prepared to return it.今年夏天,乌克兰一个极端民族主义的民兵组织派代表联系位于基辅的荷兰大使馆,说他们在顿涅茨克附近的一个乡间庄园发现了这些艺术品,艺术品原本属于被罢黜的总统维克托·F·亚努科维奇(Viktor F. Yanukovych)的政府,这个民兵组织打算归还它。“They said that as a good gesture, we want to hand over the paintings,” Ad Geerdink, the director of the Westfries Museum, which went public with the case last week in an effort to recover the works before they could be sold on the black market, said on Saturday, “but since we risked our lives to save the paintings, we expect something in return. And that something, of course, was money.”“他们说这是一个善意的姿态,他们希望移交这些油画,”西弗兰里物馆馆长埃德·格尔丁克(Ad Geerdink)在星期六说,上星期他公开谈及此案,力图在这些艺术品被卖入黑市之前收回它们,“但他们冒着危险拯救了这些油画,所以想要点回报,这个回报,当然就是钱。”The museum hired Arthur Brand, a Dutch art crime investigator, to go to Ukraine to negotiate with the militia, the Battalion of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists. “I told them to be careful,” Mr. Brand said in a telephone interview on Monday, “because, although they said they would be willing to give the work back, they were talking about a finder’s fee, and they had estimated that the work was worth 50 million. I guessed aly that they’d ask for 10 percent.”物馆雇佣了荷兰艺术犯罪调查者阿瑟·布兰德(Arthur Brand)去往乌克兰,同这个名为“乌克兰民族主义组织军团”的民兵组织谈判。“我告诉他们要当心,”星期一,布兰德在接受电话采访时说,“因为尽管他们声称愿意归还这些作品,但他们要求收取寻回者的报酬,他们估计这些作品价值5000万欧元,我觉得他们会索要这笔估价的10%作为报酬。”On Aug. 7, Mr. Brand said, he and representatives from the Dutch Embassy met with Borys Humeniuk, the deputy commander of the battalion, in Kiev and presented him with documentation that estimated the value of the works at 500,000, on the assumption that they were now in bad condition after almost a decade on the black market, and offered him a fee of 50,000.布兰德说,8月7日,他同荷兰大使馆的代表在基辅会见了该组织的副总指挥官鲍里斯·休莫尼乌克(Borys Humeniuk),向后者提供文件,明那些艺术品的估价在50万美元(建立在这些艺术品在黑市上流传了将近十年,保养状况不佳的估计之上),并提出付报酬五万欧元。After hearing that offer, Mr. Humeniuk no longer seemed so willing to return the paintings and the silver, he said.布兰德说,休莫尼乌克听到这个建议,就显得不太愿意归还油画和银器了。“Borys repeated two times, ‘My soldiers will not accept this’ and he said, ‘the people who sent me will not accept 50,000,”’ Mr. Brand said. “Then the meeting was over and he said, ‘I will do my best to negotiate with my people.’ Then we waited.”“鲍里斯连说了两遍,‘我的士兵们不会接受的,’他还说,‘把这些画给我的人们不会接受五万欧元,’”布兰德说。“会议结束后,他说,‘我会尽最大努力和我的人谈判。’然后我们就等着。”In early September, the Westfries Museum officials contacted the Ukrainian authorities, Mr. Geerdink said. Months passed without any progress in the case, he said.9月初,西弗兰里物馆的官员们开始与乌克兰官方联系,格尔丁克说,之后几个月毫无进展。During that time, Mr. Brand said, he received information that the art was being offered for sale to other parties.布兰德说,在这段时间里,他收到消息,这批艺术品已经开始向其他人士出售。“We hear from our informants that they first offered to other groups 24 paintings, and then we heard about 16, and then we heard about 12,” he said. “That was a strong indication that they were succeeding in selling at least some of the paintings. That was a strong motivation for us to go to the press.”“我们从自己的消息提供者那里得知,他们先是向其他团体出售24幅油画,接着我们又听说他们要卖16幅,后来又听说要卖12幅,”他说。“这个迹象强烈表明,他们已经至少成功地卖出了一些画作。这是我们向媒体公开此事的强烈动机之一。”Mr. Geerdink said: “We felt it was now or never. If we don’t act, the work will be sold and we’ll never get it back.”格尔丁克说:“我们觉得现在是唯一的机会。如果我们无所作为,这些作品就会被卖掉,我们就永远不可能收回它们了。”“We want potential buyers to know that it’s stolen art,” he added, “and we want to motivate the Ukrainian officials, because they say they will do something, but they never tell us what they do.”“我们希望潜在买家知道,它们是被盗窃的艺术品,”他补充说,“我们想刺激一下乌克兰官员的积极性,因为他们说,他们会做点什么,但从来不告诉我们他们到底做了什么。”The stolen works are by relatively unknown Dutch Golden Age painters, including Jan van Goyen, Jan Linsen and Jacob Waben. “When you look at it from an international or national perspective, the paintings weren’t Rembrandts, Jan Steen or Vermeer; they were the category below,” Mr. Geerdink said. “When you look at it on a regional or local scale, they’re invaluable, because there aren’t similar paintings. These are landscapes or cityscapes and marine paintings that are so important for the story that we as a museum tell about the Golden Age of this area.”这些失窃的艺术品都是来自不知名的荷兰黄金时代画家,包括杨·凡·格因(Jan van Goyen)、杨·林森(Jan Linsen)和雅克布·瓦本(Jacob Waben)。“如果以国际或国家的角度来看,这些画并不是伦勃朗(Rembrandts)、杨·斯迪恩(Jan Steen)或维梅尔(Vermeer)的作品,它们是次一等级的作品,”格林丁克说。“但如果从地区或地域的角度来看,它们是无价之宝,因为并不是大同小异的油画,其中有自然景观、城市景观和海景,我们的物馆想要讲述这一地区在黄金时代的故事,这些画在这个故事中非常重要。”The money to recover the paintings was to be provided by the municipality of Hoorn, since the Westfries museum itself has an annual operating budget of just ㄠ80,000 and an annual acquisitions budget of ㄠ1,000.赎回这批画作的钱将由霍伦自治市提供,因为西弗兰里物馆的年度运营资金只有18万欧元,每年的收购资金只有1.1万欧元。Museum officials and investigators involved in the case said that the works were probably not stolen by Ukrainians — the best guess at this point is that Dutch thieves were involved — and that they have probably changed hands a number of times in the past decade.物馆官员和相关调查者说,这些作品很可能不是乌克兰人偷的,最有可能的是同荷兰本土窃贼有关,之后,这些作品可能在过去十年里经历了一系列易手。How they ended up in Ukraine is a matter of conjecture. Mr. Geerdink said the first indication that they might be there surfaced in 2014, when a Dutch police detective discovered a color image of one of the missing art works, “Rebecca and Eliezer,” by Linsen, on a Ukrainian website.最后它们是如何来到乌克兰,仍然是个不确定的推测。格尔丁克说,可能在乌克兰的迹象于2004年首次浮出水面,当时荷兰警方在一个乌克兰网站发现一张色照片,上面是一张遗失的油画——林森的《丽贝卡与艾丽泽》(Rebecca and Eliezer)。In response to the Westfries’ effort to publicize the case, the Ukrainian national police chief, Khatia Dekanoidze, said she was waiting for an official request from the Dutch prosecutor general’s office to begin to coordinate an investigation.为了对西弗兰里物馆将此事公之于众做出回应,乌克兰国家警察局局长卡蒂娅·德卡诺伊兹(Khatia Dekanoidze)说,她正在等待荷兰检察长办公室协助调查的请求。“Our doors are open, we’re transparent and I hope that any kind of delegation from the state of Netherlands can arrive here,” she said in a taped statement on Friday.“我们的大门是敞开的,我们是透明的,我希望任何来自荷兰的委托都可以送达这里,”她于周五在一份录像声明中说。Olexander Horin, the Ukrainian ambassador to the Netherlands, criticized the museum and the Dutch authorities for meeting with Mr. Humeniuk without first contacting Ukrainian authorities.乌克兰驻荷兰大使奥列克山大·霍林(Olexander Horin)批评这家物馆及荷兰官方,未事先与乌克兰当局联系就同休莫尼乌克会面。“We consider these talks, frankly speaking, inappropriate,” he said in a telephone interview on Monday. “This is a very sensitive issue and if you choose to go ahead and do this yourself, you have to bear the responsibility for the result. It’s like a kidnapping case, when the goals of the investigators and the parents are completely different.”“坦率地说,我们认为这些会谈是不正当的,”他于周一在接受电话采访时说。“这是一个非常敏感的问题,如果你想自己处理,就得为后果承担责任。这有点像绑架案,调查者和父母的目标是不完全一致的。”At this point, Mr. Horin said, the Ukrainian government is taking several steps, “first to locate the paintings, second to apprehend them, if these are the paintings they’re looking for, and the third and next step is the transfer of these paintings to the Dutch parties.”霍林说,目前乌克兰政府正在采取若干步骤,“首先是给为油画进行地理定位,其次是抓获它们,如果这些油画是他们要找的,那么第三步以及接下来的步骤就是把这些画归还给荷兰。”Ahmed Dadou, press secretary to the Dutch minister of foreign affairs, Bert Koenders, said on Monday in a telephone interview: “We are in close contact with the Ukrainians on the proceedings in this case, and the Ukrainians have assured us that they would investigate the case.”荷兰外交部部长伯特·科恩达斯(Bert Koenders)的媒体秘书阿梅德·达杜(Ahmed Dadou)周一在接受电话采访时说:“在处理这一事件中,我们已经同乌克兰人密切合作,乌克兰方面向我们保会调查此案。”In the meantime, the Westfries Museum has re-hung many of the empty frames of the paintings in the museum’s upstairs galleries.与此同时,西弗兰里物馆在物馆楼上的画廊里重新挂上了那些空荡荡的画框。“Our fear is that maybe at this moment some of the paintings have aly been sold,” Mr. Geerdink said. “We hung up the empty frames in the museum as a sign of protest and also as a sign of hope that within a year we’ll be able to recover them.”“我们的担心是,目前已经有些油画被卖出去了,”格尔丁克说。“我们挂上空画框,既是为了表示抗议,也是希望一年之内我们能够赎回它们。” /201512/418057

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